(c) All name
plates and model number, type designation and load capacity markings on
industrial trucks, shall be maintained in a legible condition by the employer.
(d) If the
truck is equipped with front-end attachments other than factory installed
attachments, the truck shall be marked to identify the attachments and show the
approximate weight of the truck and attachment combination, and capacity of the
truck and attachment combination at maximum elevation of the load engaging means
with the load laterally centered.
modifications and structural changes to high lift trucks, industrial trucks and
rider trucks that affect the capacity and safe handling of the vehicles shall
not be performed by the employer or user without prior written approval from the
manufacturer unless the modification is designed, manufactured, and installed in
accordance with recognized good engineering and manufacturing principles. The
capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates shall be changed
Industrial trucks originally approved for the use of gasoline for fuel may be
converted to liquefied petroleum gas fuel provided the complete conversion
results in a truck which embodies the features specified for LP or LPS
designated trucks as defined in Chapter 1-3, of NFPA 505-1987, which is herein
incorporated by reference. Such conversion equipment shall be approved.
(1) When a
conversion kit is installed, the original type designation shall be removed or
obliterated and replaced with a durable, corrosion-resistant plate permanently
mounted on the truck indicating the type designation of the converted truck.
industrial trucks shall not be operated in atmospheres containing more than 20
percent of the Lower Explosive Limit of flammable gas or vapor unless approved
for the area as provided in (h).
Concentrations below 20 percent of the Lower Explosive Limit may still require
mandatory use of air-supplied respiratory protection. (See Section 5144.)
industrial trucks approved for the exposure may be operated in atmospheres
containing hazardous quantities of combustible dusts and ignitable fibers.
Approval and area designation shall be based on NFPA 505-1982 with appropriate
trucks shall bear a permanent legible label or some other identifying mark
indicating approval by the testing laboratory.
industrial trucks operate in areas where general lighting is less than 2
footcandles per square foot, directional lighting shall be provided on the
disconnected from their tractor shall be secured to prevent them from up-ending
during loading or unloading operations. This may require utilization of
auxiliary jacks designed for that purpose.
Industrial trucks shall not be operated in areas that expose the operator to the
hazard of collision with overhead obstructions unless the truck is equipped with
overhead guards. (See Section 3655.)
(m) Loads of
excessive width, length or height shall be so balanced, braced, and secured as
to prevent tipping and falling.
installed in trucks shall be secured in suitable racks which are secured to the
April 1, 1979, motorized hand and hand/rider trucks shall be designed so that
the brakes are applied and the power to the drive motor shut off when the
operator releases his grip on the control tongue, or the device used to control
Vehicles designed for use in order picking operations are exempt from the
braking requirements, provided the speed of the vehicle does not exceed 3.5 mph
while the operator is walking the vehicle.
(p) Radio remote control vehicles shall be equipped with positive means which restrict the speed of the vehicle to 3.5 mph while the equipment is being operated with radio remote control.
(q) Steering knobs shall not be used unless the truck is equipped with power steering.
(r) When cargo is being towed on pipe trucks or similar equipment, a safe means shall be provided to protect the driver from sliding loads.
(s) Counterweights shall be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged.
(t) Forks, fork extensions and other attachments shall be secured so that they cannot be inadvertently dislodged, and shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
operator is protected from all overhead hazards other than falling loads.
(a) When the
operator's platform height exceeds 36”, the maximum horizontal speed shall not
exceed 2.5 miles/hr. (1.12 meters/sec).
shall not travel when the operator's platform is elevated over 152” in height
designed to travel within rails or trucks that are electronically guided.
controlled by a constant pressure inching button which will return to neutral
when released by the operator.
flashing or rotating warning light shall be mounted on the nonelevating portion
of the truck at not less than 4 feet nor more than 6 feet elevation and shall be
so wired that the light will be activated automatically when the platform is 6
feet or higher and the truck is moved.
(d) A safe
work platform not less than 20 inches wide with standard guardrails on all open
or exposed sides of the platform shall be securely attached to the lifting
carriage and/or forks.
(e) Where a
clearance restriction or the nature of the work prohibits the use of standard
guardrails, and the employee is exposed to a fall of 4 feet or more, a personal
fall arrest system, a personal fall restraint system or positioning device
system as defined in Section 3207 of these Orders shall be used in accordance
with the requirements of Section 1670 of the Construction Safety Orders as an
alternative means of protecting employees from falling. The lanyard length for a
personal fall arrest system shall be such that the operator has freedom of
movement in the working area, but shall be rigged such that an employee can
neither free fall more than 4 feet nor contact any lower level. Lanyards shall
be so arranged as not to cause a condition where the operator could trip on the
only stock pickers, order pickers or side loaders are used in storage access
aisles (as defined in section 3207), means such as guide rails, electronic
guidance systems, or other means offering equivalent protection, shall be
provided to prevent the vehicle from colliding with the storage racks or stored
(a) When it
is necessary to elevate employees using an industrial truck, the following shall
platform shall be of sufficient size, but not less than 24" x 24" (.61
meters x .61 meters) to accommodate the employee and material being elevated.
platform shall be secured to the forks or mast to prevent tipping, slipping or
platform shall meet the guardrail and toeboard requirements of section 3210.
platform floor shall have no spaces or holes greater than one inch; and
platform floor shall have a slip resistant surface.
trucks used to elevate employees after the effective date of this subsection
shall be equipped with a means to prevent the raised platform form lowering at a
rate in excess of 135 feet per minute in case of a failure in the load
supporting hydraulic control circuits.
(b) Where a
clearance restriction or the nature of the work prohibits the use of guardrails,
a safety belt, or harness, with lanyard shall be used as described in section
the truck is operated under conditions which expose the operator to danger from
falling objects, the truck shall be equipped with overhead protection.
shall be an operator in the control position on the truck while employees are on
the elevated platform.
a truck is equipped with vertical only, or vertical and horizontal controls
elevatable with the lifting carriage or forks, means shall be provided whereby
personnel on the platform can shut off the motive power of the truck.
shall be provided to render inoperative all operating controls other than those
on the elevatable platform when the controls on the elevatable platform have
been selected for use. Only one location of controls shall be capable of being
operated at one time.
bridge cranes or other moving or motorized equipment which could overrun or
otherwise injure the elevated worker shall be shut down or locked out.
Rules Whenever Elevating Personnel. Before elevating personnel, employees shall
be instructed to:
(1) Use a
securely attached safety platform.
(2) Make sure
the lifting mechanism is operating smoothly.
(3) Make sure
that the mast is vertical. The mast shall not be tilted forward or rearward
while persons are elevated.
truck in neutral and set parking brake.
(5) Lift and
lower smoothly and with caution.
(6) Watch for
hands and feet clear of controls other than those in use.
travel with personnel on the work platform other than to make minor movements
for final positioning of the platform.
(a) Every end
control, reach, narrow aisle and motorized hand/rider truck shall be equipped
with an operator platform of sufficient size to contain the operator's feet
within its periphery and strong enough to withstand a compression load equal to
the weight of the loaded truck applied longitudinally against a flat vertical
installed, operator enclosures shall not restrict movement to and from the
Operator enclosures are not recommended on hand/rider trucks because of
interference with the steering handle and with rapid and unobstructed egress.
(a) The side
of the platform nearest the mast frame truss shall be guarded on every high-lift
industrial truck where employees ride up or down. This guard shall consist of a
substantial frame covered with 1/2 inch expanded metal, laminated safety glass,
or equivalent providing effective guarding to a height of 7 feet.
(b) If the
type of load presents a hazard, high-lift industrial trucks shall be equipped
with a load backrest extension high enough to reach above the center of the top
row of the maximum height load handled or other positive means acceptable to the
Division shall be used to prevent parts of the load falling onto the operator or
into the operator's compartment. The openings shall not be greater than the
smallest parcel carried.
(a) The rated
capacity of all industrial lift trucks and industrial tractors shall be
displayed at all times on the vehicle in such a manner that it is readily
visible to the operator.
Industrial lift trucks and industrial tractors equipped with forks shall not be
loaded beyond their designated capacity.
industrial truck and tractor shall be equipped with brakes or other effective
devices adequate to bring the vehicle to a complete safe stop while fully
industrial truck and tractor shall be equipped with a parking brake or other
effective device to prevent the vehicle moving when unattended.
industrial truck and industrial tow tractor, except those guided or controlled
by a walking operator, shall be equipped with a warning horn, whistle, gong, or
other device which can be heard clearly above the normal industrial noises in
the places of employment.
combustion engine-driven equipment shall be operated inside of buildings or
enclosed structures, only when such operation does not result in harmful
exposure to concentrations of dangerous gases or fumes. (See Section 5146.)
Industrial truck repair operations involving open flames or which may produce
sparks or other sources of ignition shall not be performed in Class I, II and
III locations, unless and until tests show that atmospheric concentrations of
flammable or combustible vapors do not exceed 20 percent L.E.L. of such
flammable or combustible materials and until precautions are taken to maintain
the atmosphere at or below 20 percent L.E.L. Such precautions could include, but
not be limited to removal of flammable material, provision for adequate
mufflers shall be filled daily or as frequently as is necessary to prevent
depletion of the supply of water below 75 percent of the filled capacity.
Vehicles with mufflers having screens or other parts that may become clogged
shall not be operated while such screens or parts are clogged. Any vehicle that
emits hazardous sparks or flames from the exhaust system shall immediately be
removed from service, and not returned to service until the cause for the
emission of such sparks and flames has been eliminated.
Industrial trucks shall be kept in a clean condition free of debris, oil, and
on all powered trucks shall be disconnected during repairs to the primary
electrical system unless power is necessary for testing and repair. On trucks
equipped with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy shall be
safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.
Replacement parts for industrial trucks shall be equivalent in safety to the
repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire
hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated as safe for such
employer using industrial trucks or industrial tow tractors, shall post and
enforce a set of operating rules including the appropriate rules listed below:
drivers authorized by the employer and trained in the safe operations of
industrial trucks or industrial tow tractors shall be permitted to operate such
vehicles. Methods shall be devised to train operators in safe operation of
powered industrial trucks.
driving and horseplay are prohibited.
(3) No riders
shall be permitted on vehicles unless provided with adequate riding facilities.
shall not ride on the forks of lift trucks.
shall not place any part of their bodies outside the running lines of an
industrial truck or between mast uprights or other parts of the truck where
shear or crushing hazards exist.
shall not be allowed to stand, pass, or work under the elevated portion of any
industrial truck, loaded or empty, unless it is effectively blocked to prevent
it from falling.
shall check the vehicle at least once per shift, and if it is found to be
unsafe, the matter shall be reported immediately to a foreman or mechanic, and
the vehicle shall not be put in service again until it has been made safe.
Attention shall be given to the proper functioning of tires, horn, lights,
battery, controller, brakes, steering mechanism, cooling system, and the lift
system for fork lifts (forks, chains, cable, and limit switches).
(8) No truck
shall be operated with a leak in the fuel system.
shall not exceed the authorized or safe speed, always maintaining a safe
distance from other vehicles, keeping the truck under positive control at all
times and all established traffic regulations shall be observed. For trucks
traveling in the same direction, a safe distance may be considered to be
approximately 3 truck lengths or preferably a time lapse--3 seconds--passing the
traveling in the same direction shall not be passed at intersections, blind
spots, or dangerous locations.
driver shall slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations
where vision is obstructed. If the load being carried obstructs forward view,
the driver shall be required to travel with the load trailing.
Operators shall look in the direction of travel and shall not move a vehicle
until certain that all persons are in the clear.
shall not be driven up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed
object of such size that the person could be caught between the truck and
shall be ascended or descended slowly.
ascending or descending grades in excess of 10 percent, loaded trucks shall be
driven with the load upgrade.
(B) On all
grades the load and load engaging means shall be tilted back if applicable, and
raised only as far as necessary to clear the road surface.
hand and hand/rider trucks shall be operated on all grades with the
load-engaging means downgrade.
forks shall always be carried as low as possible, consistent with safe
leaving a vehicle unattended, either:
(A) The power
shall be shut off, brakes set, the mast brought to the vertical position, and
forks left in the down position. When left on an incline, the wheels shall be
(B) The power
may remain on provided the brakes are set, the mast is brought to the vertical
position, forks are left in the down position, and the wheels shall be blocked,
front and rear.
the operator is over 25 feet (7.6 meters) from or out of sight of the industrial
truck, the vehicle is "unattended."
(17) When the
operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 feet (7.6 meters) of
the truck which remains in the operator's view, the load engaging means shall be
fully lowered, controls placed in neutral, and the brakes set to prevent
Forks on fork-equipped industrial trucks may be in the raised position for
loading and unloading if the forks are raised no more than 42 inches above the
level where the operator/loaders are standing, and the power is shut off,
controls placed in neutral and the brakes set. If on an incline, the wheels
shall be blocked.
shall not be run onto any elevator unless the driver is specifically authorized
to do so. Before entering an elevator, the driver shall determine that the
capacity of the elevator will not be exceeded. Once on an elevator, the power
shall be shut off and the brakes set.
Motorized hand trucks shall enter elevators or other confined areas with the
load end forward.
shall not be operated on floors, sidewalk doors, or platforms that will not
safely support the loaded vehicle.
(21) Prior to
driving onto trucks, trailers and railroad cars, their flooring shall be checked
for breaks and other structural weaknesses.
shall not be driven in and out of highway trucks and trailers at loading docks
until such trucks or trailers are securely blocked or restrained and the brakes
prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations, the
car brakes shall be set, wheel chocks or other recognized positive stops used,
and blue flags or lights displayed in accordance with applicable regulations
promulgated by the Public Utilities Commission.
width of one tire on the powered industrial truck shall be the minimum distance
maintained from the edge by the truck while it is on any elevated dock,
platform, freight car or truck.
tracks shall be crossed diagonally, wherever possible. Parking closer than 8 1/2
feet from the centerline of railroad tracks is prohibited.
shall not be loaded in excess of their rated capacity.
(27) A loaded
vehicle shall not be moved until the load is safe and secure.
care shall be taken when tilting loads. Tilting forward with the load engaging
means elevated shall be prohibited except when picking up a load. Elevated loads
shall not be tilted forward except when the load is being deposited onto a
storage rack or equivalent. When stacking or tiering, backward tilt shall be
limited to that necessary to stabilize the load.
(29) The load
engaging device shall be placed in such a manner that the load will be securely
held or supported.
precautions shall be taken in the securing and handling of loads by trucks
equipped with attachments, and during the operation of these trucks after the
loads have been removed.
powered industrial trucks are used to open and close doors, the following
provisions shall be complied with:
(A) A device
specifically designed for opening or closing doors shall be attached to the
(B) The force
applied by the device to the door shall be applied parallel to the direction of
travel of the door.
entire door opening operation shall be in full view of the operator.
(D) The truck
operator and other employees shall be clear of the area where the door might
fall while being opened.
(32) If loads
are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load
shall not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved.
employee who operates an agricultural or industrial tractor shall be instructed
in the following procedures and in any other practices dictated by the work
environment. Such information shall be provided at the time of initial
assignment and at least annually thereafter. Copies of these instructions,
printed in a language understood by the majority of the employees, shall be
conspicuously posted at a place frequented by the drivers.
fasten your seat belt if the tractor has a ROPS.
possible, avoid operating the tractor near ditches, embankments, and holes.
speed when turning, crossing slopes, and on rough, slick, or muddy surfaces.
4. Stay off
slopes too steep for safe operation.
where you are going, especially at row ends, on roads, and around trees.
6. Do not
permit others to ride.
the tractor smoothly--no jerky turns, starts, or stops.
8. Hitch only
to the drawbar and hitch points recommended by tractor manufacturers.
tractor is stopped, set brakes securely and use park lock if available.
employee who operates an agricultural or industrial tractor shall be required to
check the tractor prior to operation each day and if it is unsafe report the
matter immediately to a foreman or mechanic and shall not use the tractor again
until it has been made safe.
shall be prohibited from stunt driving or horseplay while operating an
agricultural or industrial tractor.
repairs shall be performed on any agricultural or industrial trucks or tractors
until arrangements have been made to reduce the probability of injury to
repairmen or others caused by sudden movement or operation of such equipment or
cars, equipment carriages, stock pickers, and similar equipment operating on
rails or drawn by chains or cables shall be equipped with wheel guards or
bumpers constructed and installed for the purpose of preventing a person's feet
being crushed under the wheels. When the body or bed of trucks, carriages, or
cars of this type extends over the wheels to the sides and both ends such a
distance as will prevent a person's feet being crushed, said equipment shall be
considered to be in compliance with this Order.
Order does not apply to cars used in trains.
(1) The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in this subsection.
(2) Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the training required by this subsection, except as permitted in subsection (e).
(b) Training program implementation. Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:
(1) Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and
(2) Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.
(3) Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee) and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace.
(4) All operator training and evaluation shall be conducted by persons who have the knowledge, training and experience to train powered industrial truck operators and evaluate their competence.
(c) Training program content. Powered industrial truck operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to the safe operation of the truck in the employer's workplace.
(1) Truck-related topics:
(A) Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate;
(B) Differences between the truck
and the automobile;
(C) Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work;
(D) Engine or motor operation;
(E) Steering and maneuvering;
(F) Visibility (including restrictions due to loading);
(G) Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations;
(H) Vehicle capacity;
(I) Vehicle stability;
(J) Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform;
(K) Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries;
(L) Operating limitations;
(M) Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator's manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate.
(2) Workplace-related topics:
(A) Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated;
(B) Composition of loads to be carried and load stability;
(C) Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking;
(D) Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated;
(E) Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the vehicle will be operated;
(F) Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated;
(G) Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle's stability;
(H) Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a build-up of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust;
(I) Other unique or potentially hazardous conditions in the workplace that could affect safe operation.
(d) Refresher training and evaluation. Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted as required by subsection (d)(1) to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely.
(1) Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to the operator when:
(A) The operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner;
(B) The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident;
(C) The operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not operating the truck safely;
(D) The operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck; or
(E) A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.
(2) An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator's performance shall be conducted at least once every three years.
(e) Avoidance of duplicative training. If an operator has
previously received training in a topic specified in subsection (c) of this
section, and such training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions
encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator
has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely.
(f) Certification. The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by this section. The certification shall include the name of the operator, the date of the training, the date of the evaluation, and the identity of the person(s) performing the training or evaluation.
(g) Dates. The employer shall ensure that operators of powered industrial trucks are trained, as appropriate, in accordance with the following dates:
(1) If the employee was hired before July 15, 2000, the initial training and evaluation of that employee must be completed by July 15, 2000;
(2) If the employee was hired after July 15, 2000, the initial training and evaluation of that employee must be completed before the employee is assigned to operate a powered industrial truck.
Agricultural operations as defined in Section 3437 of the General Industry
Safety Orders are exempt from the requirements of Section 3668.